Texas one of only a few states to do high school drug testing
According to the Westport Patch, Texas is one of only three states (the others are New Jersey and Illinois) to conduct routine drug testing of high school athletes. Obviously, if a student-athlete tests positive for something like marijuana or steroids, the positive test is likely to lead to drug charges, or at the very least some sort of disciplinary action taken by the school.
What has people questioning high school athlete drug testing is the practicality of it, in the context of the mission of a school: education, rather than drug enforcement.
High school principal John Dodig, as reported by the Westport Patch, says, "Personally, I would not advocate drug testing for the same reason I don't advocate breathalyzing everyone who enters our prom venue. If that is the extent to which we must go to have a safe prom or to have an athletic program, then we should abandon both and stick to our primary mission of education."
The fact that Texas is one of only a few states to conduct drug testing of high school student-athletes is indicative of Texas's tough drug laws generally. For example, though low-level marijuana possession is becoming more tolerated elsewhere in the nation, in Texas marijuana possession is still a crime - any amount over four ounces of marijuana is a felony charge.
Source: Westport Patch, "High School Drug Testing: To Test or Not to Test," DJ Sixsmith, April 25, 2011